Measurement Consultation

CHBR provides a variety of measurement consultations.  Email Krista Scheffey to learn more and to request a CHBR consultation. 


Measures Development and Evaluation Studies 

PDF copies of the following articles are available for download by clicking the citation. Any copies downloaded are for personal use only. Any further/multiple distribution, publication, or commercial use of this copyrighted material requires permission from the publisher.

Nutrition Related

Green SH, Glanz K, Bromberg J.  Facilitators and Barriers to Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating Healthy Vending Policies in Four Cities. Health Promotion Practice. February 2020. doi:10.1177/1524839919900493

Glanz K, Johnson L, Yaroch A, Phillips M, Ayala G, Davis E.  Measures of Retail Food Store Environments and Sales:   Review and Implications for Healthy Eating Initiatives. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 48: 280-288, 2016.  Recognized as one of the “most read/downloaded” JNEB articles, second quarter 2016. Recognized by JNEB as a ‘high-impact paper’ based on citations, 2019.

Green SH, Glanz K.  Development of the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS-P).  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49: 50-61, 2015.

Glanz K, Sallis JF, Saelens BE.  Advances in Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Assessment Tools and Applications:  Recommendations.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48(5): 615-619, 2015.

Partington SN, Menzies T, Colburn T, Saelens BE, Glanz K.  Development and validation of reduced item food audit tools based on the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys for stores and restaurants.   American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2015; 49(4): e23-e33.

King AC, Glanz K, Patrick K.  Technologies to Measure and Modify Physical Activity and Eating Environments. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48(5); 630-638, 2015.

Kerr J, Sallis JF, Bromby E, Glanz K.  Assessing food promotions in grocery stores:  Reliability and validity of the GroPromo audit tool.  Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 44: 597-603, 2012.

Voss C, Klein S, Glanz K, Clawson M. Nutrition Environment Measures-Vending (NEMS-V): Development, reliability and dissemination. Health Promotion Practice, 13 (4): 425-430, 2012.

Honeycutt S, Davis E, Clawson M, Glanz K. Training and Dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys (NEMS). Preventing Chronic Disease, 7 (6), 2010.

Glanz K, Steffen AD. Development and Reliability Testing for Measures of Psychosocial Constructs Associated with Adolescent Girls' Calcium Intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(5):857-61. 2008.

Saelens BE, Glanz K, Sallis JF, Frank LD. Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R): Development and evaluation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32: 273-281, 2007.

Glanz K, Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD. Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S): Development and evaluation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32: 282-289, 2007.

Glanz K, Basil M, Maibach E, Goldberg J, Snyder D. Why Americans Eat What They Do: Taste, Nutrition, Cost, Convenience, and Weight Control Concerns as Influences on Food Consumption. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 98: 1118-1126, 1998.

Kristal A, Glanz K, Feng Z, Hebert JR, Probart C, Eriksen M, Heimendinger J. Does using a short dietary questionnaire instead of a food frequency improve response rates to a health assessment survey? Journal of Nutrition Education. 26:224-227, 1994.

Glanz K, Kristal A, Sorensen G, Palombo R, Heimendinger J, Probart C. Development and validation of measures of psychosocial factors influencing fat- and fiber-related dietary behavior. Preventive Medicine, 23:373-387, 1993.

Built Environment 

Cain KL, Gavand KA, Conway TL, Geremia CM, Millstein RA, Frank LD, Saelens BE, Adams MA, Glanz K, King AC, Sallis JF. Developing and validating an abbreviated version of the Microscale Audit for Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS-Abbreviated). Journal of Transport & Health, 5: 84-96, 2017.

Kerr J, Marinac CR, Ellis K, Godbole S, Hipp A, Glanz K, Mitchell J, Laden F, James P, Berrigan D.  Comparison of accelerometry methods for estimating physical activity.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 49(3): 617-624, 2017.

James P, Weissman J, Wolf J, Mumford K, Contant CK, Hwang WT, Taylor L, Glanz K.  Comparing GPS, Log, Survey, and Accelerometry to Measure Physical Activity. American Journal of Health Behavior, 40(1): 123-131(9), 2016.

Glanz K, Handy SL, Henderson KE, Slater SJ, Davis E, Powell LM.  Built Environment Assessment:  Multidisciplinary Perspectives.  Social Science and Medicine: Population Health, 2: 24-31, 2016.

Sallis JF, Cain KL, Conway TL, Gavand K, Millstein RA, Geremia CM, Frank LD, Saelens BE, Glanz K, King AC. Is your neighborhood designed to support physical activity? A brief streetscape audit tool. Preventing Chronic Disease, 2015.

Glanz K, Davis EL.  Introduction to the Theme Issue Built Environment Assessment and Interventions for Obesity Prevention: Moving the Field Forward.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2015, 48(5): 613-614.

Cain KL, Millstein RA, Sallis JF, Conway TL, Gavand K, Frank LD, Saelens BE, Geremia CM, Chapman J, Adams MA, Glanz K, King AC.  Contribution of streetscape audits to explanation of physical activity in four age groups:  Validity of the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) instrument.  Social Science and Medicine, 116: 82-92, 2014.

Frank LD, Saelens BE, Chapman J, Sallis JF, Kerr J, Glanz K, Couch SC, Learnihan V, Zhou C, Colburn T, Cain C.  Objective assessment of obesogenic environments in youth:  GIS methods and spatial findings from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK) Study.   American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2012; 42(5):e47-55.

Scanlin KK, Haardoerfer R, Kegler MC, Glanz K.  Development of a Pedestrian Audit Tool to Assess Rural Neighborhood Walkability.  Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 2014, 11: 1085-1096.

Millstein RA, Cain KL, Sallis JF, Conway TL, Geremia C, Frank LD, Chapman J, Van Dyck D, Amberg L, Kerr J, Glanz K, Saelens BE.  Development, scoring, and reliability of the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS).  BMC Public Health, 2013; 13:403.  PMCID: PMC372814

Tappe K, Glanz K.  Measurement of Exercise Habits and Prediction of Leisure-Time Activity in Established Exercisers.  Psychology, Health and Medicine, 2013; 18:601-611.

Sun Exposure, Sun Protection, and Skin Cancer

Gies P, Glanz K, O'Riordan D, Elliott T, Nehl E. Measured occupational solar UVR exposures of lifeguards in pool settings.American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 52(8): 645-653, 2009.

Elliott T, Nehl E, Glanz K. A controlled trial of objective measures of sunscreen and moisturizing lotion. Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 18(5):1399-1402, 2009.

Glanz K, McCarty F, Nehl EJ, O'Riordan DL, Gies P, Bundy L, Locke AE, Hall DM. Validity of Self-Reported Sunscreen Use by Parents, Children and Lifeguards. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36: 63-69, 2009.

O'Riordan DL, Nehl E, Gies P, Bundy L, Burgess K, Davis E, Glanz K. Validity of covering-up sun protection habits: Association of observations and self-report. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 60(5): 739-744, 2009.

Glanz K, Yaroch AL, Dancel M, Saraiya M, Crane LA, Buller DB, Manne S, O'Riordan DL, Heckman CJ, Hay J, Robinson JK. Measures of Sun Exposure and Sun Protection Practices for Behavioral and Epidemiologic Research. Archives of Dermatology, 144(2): 217-222, 2008.

O'Riordan DL, Glanz K, Gies P, Elliott T. A Pilot Study of the Validity of Self-Reported Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Sun Protection Practices Among Lifeguards, Parents and Children. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 84: 774-778, 2008.

O'Riordan DL, Lunde K, Urschitz J, Glanz K. A non-invasive objective measure of sunscreen use and reapplication.Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 14(3): 722-726, 2005.

Glanz K, Schoenfeld E, Weinstock M, Layi G, Kidd J, Shigaki D. Development and reliability of a brief skin cancer risk assessment tool. Cancer Detection and Prevention, 27(4): 311-315, 2003.

Glanz K, Silverio R, Farmer A. Diary reveals sun-protective practices. The Skin Cancer Foundation Journal, 14:27-28, 86, 1996. Reprinted as "Daily diary reveals sun-protective practices" in Primary Care and Cancer, 17 (5):21-23, 1997.


Lowenthal E, Marukutira M, Chapman J, Mokete K, Riva K, Tshume O, Eby J, Matshaba M, Anabwani G, Gross R, Glanz K.  Psychosocial assessments for HIV+ African adolescents:  Establishing construct validity and exploring under-appreciated correlates of adherence.  PLOS ONE, 9 (10): e109302, 2014.


Measurement Tools

This section provides links to the actual measures validated by the studies listed in the development section above. 

Nutrition Related

Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS-P) (Green, Glanz, 2015)

Nutrition Environment Measures Survey - Store (NEMS-S) (Glanz et al., 2007)

Nutrition Environment Measures Survey - Restaurant (NEMS-R) (Saelens et al., 2007)

Sun Exposure, Sun Protection, and Skin Cancer

Brief Risk Assessment Screening Tool (BRAT) (Glanz et al, 2003)

Core Skin Cancer Prevention Questionnaire (Glanz et al, 2008)

Sun Habits Survey (SHS) (Glanz et al, 2009): Adult 

Sun Habits Survey (SHS) (Glanz et al, 2009): Parent/Child

[Note: the Core Skin Cancer Prevention Questionnaire and SHS have significant overlap in their content. However, the Core Questionnaire was designed by an expert consensus panel (of which Dr. Glanz was a participant), and the SHS was independently developed by Dr. Glanz's research group.]

Sun Habits Diary (SHD) (Glanz et al, 2009): Adult 

Sun Habits Diary (SHD) (Glanz et al, 2009): Parent/Child
[Note: This document is designed to be folded into a booklet]


Calcium Intake in Adolescent Girls (Glanz et al, 2008)

Review Articles 

Nutrition Related 

Sallis JF, Glanz K. Physical activity and food solutions to the obesity epidemic. The Milbank Quarterly, 87(1): 123-154, 2009.

Glanz K. Measuring food environments: A historical perspective. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(4S):S93-S98, 2009.

Story M, Kaphingst K, Robinson-O'Brien R, Glanz K. Creating healthy food and eating environments: Policy and environmental approaches. Annual Review of Public Health, 2008; 29: 253-272.

Sallis JF, Glanz K. The role of built environments in physical activity, eating, and obesity in childhood. The Future of Children (Brookings/Princeton University), 16, 1: 89-108, 2006.

Glanz K, Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD. Healthy nutrition environments: Concepts and measures. American Journal of Health Promotion, 19(5): 330-333, 2005.

Glanz K, Hoelscher D. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake by Changing Environments, Policy and Pricing: Restaurant-Based Research, Strategies, and Recommendations. Preventive Medicine, 29: S88-S93, 2004.

Glanz K, Yaroch A. Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change. Preventive Medicine, 39: S75-S80, 2004.

Glanz K. Progress in dietary behavior change. Amer Journal of Health Promotion, 14:112-117, 1999.

Kristal AR, Glanz K, Curry SJ, Patterson RE. How can stages of change be best used in dietary interventions? Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99: 679-684, 1999.

Glanz K. Review of nutritional attitudes and practices of primary care physicians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65 (Suppl.):2016S-2019S, 1997.

Glanz K, Sorensen G, Farmer A. The health impact of worksite nutrition and cholesterol programs. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10:453-470, 1996.

Brug J, van Assema P, Kok G, LenderinkT, Glanz K. Self-rated dietary fat intake: Associations with objectively assessed intake, psychosocial factors and intention to change. Journal of Nutrition Education, 26:218-223, 1994.

Glanz K, Tziraki C, Albright C, Fernandes J. Nutrition assessment and counseling practices of primary care physicians.Journal of General Internal Medicine, 10:89-92, 1994.

Glanz K, Eriksen MP. Individual and community models for dietary change. Journal of Nutrition Education, 25:80-86, 1993.

DiSogra L, Glanz K, Rogers T. Working with community organizations for nutrition intervention. Health Education Research, 5(4):459-465, 1990.

Sun Exposure, Sun Protection, and Skin Cancer

Glanz K, Buller DB, Saraiya M. Reducing ultraviolet radiation exposure among outdoor workers: State of the evidence and recommendations. Environmental Health, 2007, 6:22 (08 Aug 2007).

Glanz K, Mayer JA. Reducing UVR Exposure to Prevent Skin Cancer: Methodology and Measurement. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29: 131-142, 2005.


Mullen PD, Allen JD, Glanz K, Fernandez ME, Bowen DJ, Pruitt SL, Glenn BA, Pignone M. Measures used in studies of informed decision making about cancer screening. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32(3): 188-201, 2006.

Additional Resources

Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is a system of highly reliable, valid, flexible, precise, and responsive assessment tools that measure patient-reported health status.







Established in 2009, the University of Pennsylvania's Center for Health Behavior Research is an institution-wide collaborative effort, dedicated to conducting health behavior research, fostering advances in measurement of health behaviors, advancing the use of health behavior theory, and promoting collaboration among faculty, fellows and students. 




Center for Heath Behavior Research
University of Pennsylvania
837 Blockley Hall
423 Guardian Drive
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6021

Office Number: 215-573-4529
Fax Number: 215-573-5315